Question 11

  • The further away an electron is from the nucleus, the less binding energy that the incoming photons need to overcome, and as a result, the more kinetic energy the electron will have after it is ejected.

Question 20

Photoelectron Spectroscopy PES 1 1 1.36 0.80 Ionization Energy
 (MJ/mol) • The shell model does not separate the 8 electrons in n = 2.
 But The PES for boron does not support that. • PES data tells us that
 the model must be revised, as the n = 2 shell must contain 2 subshells
 with different IE. • Each peak corresponds to a subshell or sublevel.
 H: 1 electron in n = 1 He: 2 electrons in n = 1 Li: 2 electrons in n =
 1 and 1 electrons in n = 2 Be: 2 electrons in n = 1 and 2 electrons in
 n = 2 Ele+onic B: 2 electrons in n = 1, 2 electrons in n = 2, 2s and 1
 electron in 2pSttmcture

10 10 20 1S2 20 30 30 40 40 50 2S2 50 245250 325330 870 245 250
 325330 870 3206 ev 1S2 3206 ev

Question 21

The bond length always corresponds to the point where the potential bond energy (a balance of the attraction and repulsion forces between the two atoms) is at it’s minimum value.

  • Energy released when bond -100 forms Energy) -200 —300 3 74 (H2
bond length) Energy absorbed when bond breaks (+Bond Energy) 100
Internuclear distance (pm)

Question 23

  • Weak acids resist changes in pH more effectively than strong atoms because so many molecules of weak acid are undissociated in solution. The base must cause those molecules to dissociate before affecting the pH significantly.

Question 25

  • When calculating enthalpy, the total energy is always the bonds broken (reactants) minus the bonds formed (products). The more positive this value is, the more energy there is in the reactants compared to the products.

    Break С—Н С1—С1 Ь опав ф) Маке C-—CI апа Н—С1 Ь опав

Question 36

  • The outermost s-block electrons in a transition metal tend to be lost before the d-block electrons do.

Question 40


: 0 : : 0 :

十 ·

Question 44

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Question 49

What is the Reaction Quotient? Equilibrium Constant Reaction
 Quotient Expression is ratio of products to reactants with balanced
 equation coefficients as powers Only includes gases and solutions To
 solve for K, plug in concentrations at equilibrium Expression is ratio
 of products to reactants with balanced equation coefficients as powers
 Only includes gases and solutions To solve for Q, plug in
 concentrations at any time

Trick: Follow the Direction of the Alligator Reaction proceeds to
 the left\! OR... Reaction proceeds to the right\!

Q K Reaction forms products Equilib- Reaction rium forms reactants

Question 53

Zero order 1st order 2nd Order (b) Plots from integrated rate
 equations: Zero order Conc. 1st order Conc. 2nd order (Conc.)2 3rd
 order 3rd order (Conc.)

Question 55

  • The strength of an atom’s magnetic moment increases with an increase in the number of unpaired electrons.

Question 60

U. EXERGONIC REACTION: AG < O Reaction is spontaneous Energy is
 released reactants products Time

8 ENDERGONIC REACTION: AG > O Reaction is not spontaneous Energy is
 added products AG>O reactants Time

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