Question 3

The shielding effect describes the attraction between an electron and
the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron shell. Shielding
effect can be defined as a reduction in the effective nuclear charge on
the electron cloud, due to a difference in the attraction forces of the
electrons on the nucleus. Shielding effect - Wikipedia\_effect

Repulsion Outer electrons Attraction Nucleus Z

Question 9

  • In an electrochemical reaction, as the reaction progress, the voltage of the cell will decrease because with a lower concentration, the number of electrons that are being transferred will decrease

Question 12

  • SF4 has an asymmetrical molecular structure

    axial equatorial

Question 16

pH HC03- 10.3 8.3 2- 3 phenolphthalein indicator thymol blue
 indicator H2C03 HC03 1 2 mole equivalents of OH - added

Question 17


计算机生成了可选文字: Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation \[A \] pH = pKa + 《 og
 \[HAJ \[HA\] ConJ ugate Base Weak Acid

  • At the half-equivalence point, the last part of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation cancels out, leaving pH=pKa

Question 20

AGO - RT1n(K ) eq

Question 21

The weaker the O-H bond is in an oxoacid, the stronger the acid will
 be as the 1--1+ ions are rmre likely to dissociate. The O-F bond in
 HOF is stronger than the O-CI bond in HOCI because fluorine is
 srnaller (and thus more electronegative) than chlorine. If the O-F
 bond is stronger, the O-H bond is correspondingly weaker, rmking HOF
 the stronger acid.

Question 23

  • Buffer = a week acid/base + its salt

Question 27

  • With the same amount of limiting reactant, adding more excessive reactant will not change the value for H, but the change in temperature will decrease for the increase in overall mass

Question 38

  • At low temperatures or high pressures, real gases deviate significantly from ideal gas behavior.

Question 49

  • The overall rate law is always equal to the rate law for the slowest elementary step, which can be determined using the coefficients of the reactants. In this case, rate = k[NO2][F2]. To get the overall order, we add the exponents in the rate law. 1+1 = 2

Question 53

  • Lower vapor pressure = weaker IMFs

  • IMFs:

    • polar > nonpolar

    • with hydrogen bonding > without hydrogen bonding

Question 55

  • If both nonpolar, more electron = more polarizable = stronger IMFs = higher boiling point

Question 60

计算机生成了可选文字: Zinc copp Brass 《 浏 b t 哺 on 引 0 carbon iron @到以“ Carton
 刨 r 镛 心 a 《 黼 )

  • Substitutional alloys have similar, reduced malleability and ductility to interstitial alloys and have densities that typically lay between the densities of the component metals

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