Question 4

  • Potassium Chromate is a yellowish, crystalline compound.


Question 10

  • First Ionization Energy: He > Ne > Ar > Kr > Xe

    Ion' energy 2300 2000 1500 1000 eccc

Question 15

  • A typical Lewis acid-base reaction:

    acid acid I.euvii$, H20\*CH3 I.euvii$,

Question 23

A solvation shell is the solvent interface of any chemical compound
 or biomolecule that constitutes the solute. When the solvent is water
 it is often referred to as a hydration shell or hydration sphere. A
 classic example is when water molecules arrange around a metal ion.
 Solvation shell - Wikipedia\_shell


  • For the process of solid calcium chloride dissolving in water, the entropy change is negative since water molecules in the hydration shells of Ca2+ and Cl- ions are more ordered than they are in the pure water

Question 28

снзсна о снаснз etner group

Question 30

Molecular Polarity Boiling point\* 100 oc Water surrounding a cation
 Water surrounding an anion Boilin point = -161 oc Why do water and
 methane differ so much in their boiling points? Why do ionic compounds
 dissolve in water?

Polarity and Boiling Point: The polarity of the molecules determines
 the forces of attraction between the molecules in the liquid state.
 Polar molecules are attracted by the opposite charge effect (the
 positive end of one molecule is attracted to the negative end of
 another molecule. Hydrogen Bonds and Boiling Point -

Question 34

  • N2H4 exhibits significant hydrogen bonding in the liquid state.


Question 37

anode cathode anode cathode electrolyte electrolyte GALVANIC CELL
 Energy released by spontaneous redox reaction is converted to
 electrical energy. Oxidation half-reaction: Reduction half-reaction:
 Overall cell reaction: ELECTROLYTIC CELL Electrical energy is used to
 drive nonspontaneous redox reaction. Oxidation half-reaction:
 Reduction half-reaction: Overall cell reaction:

Question 38

  • Calculate standard cell potential for the galvanic cell:

    cu Zn = +0.34V red zn2+ + 2e- EOred = -o.76V cu2+ + 2e- EOred =
+0.34V cu + Zn ox cell = +0.76V = +1.10V cu2+ + zn —lna (8.31 J/mol In
(1.75) = l.łov - (0.100) (2 C/mol) = 1.06V

Question 40

  • Beta plus decay vs Beta minus decay



Question 47

![Zeroth Order First Order Second Order Differential rate law Concentration vs. time Integrated rate law Straight-line plot to determine rate constant Relative rate vs. concentration Half-life Units of k, rate constant Rate = o o o o ALA] At Time Slope = —k Time Rate — o o ALA] = MA] At Time o o —kt or Slope = —k Time [A], M Rate, M/S o o o o 2 3 M Rate, M/s 2k 2 3 Rate = 2 3 A[A] = At Time Slope = k Time Rate, M/S 4 9 2 3 0.693 l/s ](./media/image22.png)

Order Rate Law Rate = Rate = kl Concentration - Time Equation = kot
 2.303 Half Life 2k o o .aga Graphical

Zero order 1st order 2nd Order (b) Plots from integrated rate
 equations: Zero order Conc. 1st order Conc. 2nd order (Conc.)2 3rd
 order 3rd order (Conc.)

Question 51

  • O3 contains bonds that have a bond order of 1.5


    C-C triple bond Bond order = 3 C-C single bond Bond order = I H C- C
double bond Bond order — 2 C-O partial double bond Bond order = I .5

Question 67

1000 ml In 20'C Volumetric Flask 250 ml Conical (Erlenmeyer) flasks

Question 71

  • Endothermic: Separation of solute and solvent

  • Exothermic: Intermolecular attractions form between solute and solvent

    Separated particles Solute 000 oo Solvent Step 2 Step 1 AHI > O
Step 3 AH3 < O Solution (a) Exothermic solution formation

    Separated particles Step 3 AH3 < o Solution Step 2 AH2 > 0 Solute
000 Step 1 oo AHI > o Solvent (b) Endothermic solution formation

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