Question 10

The entroPY of exactly equal to zero. At absolute zero (zero
 kelvin), the system must be in a state with the minimum possible
 energy, and the above statement of the third law holds true provided
 that the perfect crystal has only one minimum energy state. Third law
 of thermodynamics - Wikipedia\_law\_of\_thermodynamics

Lattice energy is defined as the energy required to separate a mole
 of an ionic solid into gaseous ions. Lattice energy cannot be measured
 empirically, but it can be calculated using electrostatics or
 estimated using the Born-Haber cycle. Lattice Energy - Boundless

Question 11

  • Quantity typically determined by measuring the rate of a reaction at two or more different temperatures: Activation Energy

  • The activation energy can also be found algebraically by substituting two rate constants (k1, k2) and the two corresponding reaction temperatures (T1, T2) into the Arrhenius Equation


  • Arrhenius Equation

    actvaton energy consänt RT Kelvin temperature the gas consant
frequency factor mathematca\] quantty, e pre-exponenta\] factor

Question 49

  • Most Phosphates are insoluble

    Many phosphates are not soluble in water at standard temperature and
pressure. The sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, and ammonium
phosphates are all water-soluble. Most other phosphates are only
slightly soluble or are insoluble in water. Phosphate - Wikipedia

Question 54

In chemistry, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution with
 thermodynamic properties analogous to those of a mixture of ideal
 gases. The vapor pressure of the solution obeys Raoult's law, and the
 activity coefficient of each component (which measures deviation from
 ideality) is equal to one. Ideal solution - Wikipedia\_solution

  • Raoult's law

    Raoult's Law • The common mathematical statement for this behavior
is known as Raoult's Law: P s\&vent s\&vent • Poin is the observed
vapor pressure of the solution • is the mole fraction is the vapor
pressure of the pure solvent.

    Mole Fraction Vapour Pressure Diagram for deal Solution

Question 66

Factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction include which of
 the following? I. Frequency of collisions of reactant particles Il.
 Kinetic energy of collisions of reactant particles 111. Orientation of
 reactant particles during collisions Il only (A) (B) I and Il only I
 and Ill only 11 and 111 onl E) 1, 11, and 111

  • Collision Theory

    ![Frequency Factor: Number of Collisions per Second Determined by the concentration of the reactants. [Temperature has a smaller influence.) ](./media/image60.png)

    Collision Theory Rate of Re action — Number of Collisions X per
second Frequency Factor x

    Energy Factor Fraction of collisions with enough energy to react.
Determined by the Temperature

    Rate of Reaction — Collision Theory Fraction Of collisions Number of
Collisions X with X enough per second energy to react Energy Factor

    Probability Factor Fraction of collisions with proper orientation
Determined by the shape of the molecules

    Rate of Reaction — Collision Theory Fraction Of Of collisions Number
Of collisions Collisions X with X with the enough per second energy to
react proper orientation Probability Factor

Question 70

Naturally produced amino acids typically contain all of the
 following elements EXCEPT A nitrogen B chlorine (C) oxygen (D)
 hydrogen (E) carbon

The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and
 nitrogen, although other elements are found in the side chains of
 certain amino acids. Amino acid - Wikipedia\_acid


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